k-bounded grammars and their relation to context-sensitive languages. Regulated rewriting, matrix grammars, time-varying grammars, programmed grammars, control languages. Relation between languages generated with appearance checking by context-free programmed grammars and Chomsky type 0 languages. Indexed grammars, attribute grammars, two-level grammars. Lindenmayer-systems.
Mathematical machines accepting formal languages ( Turing - machines, automaton with k push-down stores, automaton with k queues), their equivalence). Probabilistic automaton, their relation to the Chomsky- hierarchy. Tree-automaton and their relation to context-free languages. Abstract language families. Fix point methods in solving language equations